Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale

Rates self-esteem feelings based on RES by measuring both positive and negative feelings about the self.

Refer to the text below the scale for more information on the original study, its validity and usage.


The RES is a self-report instrument for assessing individual self-esteem through 10 items, five of which are scored positively and five negatively.

The calculator below is meant to put the RES in an easy to use form and also provides the ability for the researcher to print or store PDF papers thus recording each respondent’s answers.


Scoring method:

■ For items 1,2,4,6,7: Strongly Agree (3), Agree (2), Disagree (1), and Strongly Disagree (0).

■ For items 3,5,8,9,10 (reversed in valence): Strongly Agree (0), Agree (1), Disagree (2), and Strongly Disagree (3).

Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Interpretation:

■ 0-15 Low Self-Esteem

■ 15-25 Normal range

■ 25-30 High Self-Esteem


1I feel that I am a person of worth, at least on an equal plane with others.
2I feel that I have a number of good qualities.
3All in all, I am inclined to feel that I am a failure.
4I am able to do things as well as most other people.
5I feel I do not have much to be proud of.
6I take a positive attitude toward myself.
7On the whole, I am satisfied with myself.
8I wish I could have more respect for myself.
9I certainly feel useless at times.
10At times I think I am no good at all.
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Steps on how to print your input & results:

1. Fill in the calculator/tool with your values and/or your answer choices and press Calculate.

2. Then you can click on the Print button to open a PDF in a separate window with the inputs and results. You can further save the PDF or print it.

Please note that once you have closed the PDF you need to click on the Calculate button before you try opening it again, otherwise the input and/or results may not appear in the pdf.


 

Original Study

The scale was developed by the sociologist Morris Rosenberg in 1965 based on data from 5,024 adolescents from 10 randomly selected schools in New York State. It has now become a widely used self-esteem measure in social-science research.

The scale determines individual self-worth by measuring both positive and negative feelings about the self.

Scoring method:

■ For items 1,2,4,6,7: Strongly Agree (3), Agree (2), Disagree (1), and Strongly Disagree (0).

■ For items 3,5,8,9,10 (reversed in valence): Strongly Agree (0), Agree (1), Disagree (2), and Strongly Disagree (3).

Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Interpretation:

■ 0-15 Low Self-Esteem

■ 15-25 Normal range

■ 25-30 High Self-Esteem

 

Psychometric properties

This measure has been administered across many populations, over 53 nations, age ranges, and races. Studies have demonstrated both a unidimensional and a two-factor structure to the scale. Each of the 10 items of the scale was shown to be differentially related to self-esteem.

Property Population Result Reference
Test/Retest reliability High school juniors and seniors Excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.85 - 0.89) Rosenberg, 1965
Internal consistency University students in Spain Excellent internal consistency (ICC = 0.85 - 0.88) Martin-Albo et. al, 2007
Criterion validity (Predictive/Concurrent) High school students Excellent concurrent validity (0.77 to 0.88) Myers and Winters, 2002
Construct validity High school juniors and seniors Excellent correlation with anxiety (-0.64)
Adequate correlation with depression (-0.54 and other (- 0.43)
Rosenberg, 1965
 

Self-esteem conclusions

A study by Baumeister 2003 on self-esteem and interpersonal happiness, health and success has led to the following conclusions:

■ Only a modest correlation was found between self-esteem and school performance thus there is not a strong indication that high self-esteem leads to good performance;

■ Correlations between job performance in adults and self-esteem vary widely, with the direction of causality yet to be established. However, occupational success may boost self-esteem rather than the reverse;

■ The claims that people with greater levels of high-esteem tend to be more likable and attractive, to forge better relationships, and create a better impression on others have been disconfirmed;

■ Self-esteem has not been shown to predict the quality or duration of relationships;

■ Neither high nor low self-esteem is a direct cause of violence;

■ The highest and lowest rates of cheating and bullying were found in different subcategories of high self-esteem;

■ Self-esteem was found to be in a strong relation to perceived happiness although causality is yet to be established; But high self-esteem was found to lead to happier outcomes regardless of stress or other circumstances.

 

References

Original reference

Rosenberg M. Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSE). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. Measures Package, 1965; 61.

Rosenberg M. Society and the Adolescent Self-Image. 1989 Revised edition. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.

Validation

Martin-Albo, J., Nuniez, J. L., Navarro, J. G., & Grijalvo, F. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: translation and validation in university students. Span J Psychol. 2007; 10(2), 458-467.

Myers, Kathleen, & Winters, Nancy C. Ten-year review of rating scales. II: Scales for internalizing disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2002; 41(6), 634-659.

Other references

Gray-Little, B., Williams, V.S.L., & Hancock, T. D. An item response theory analysis of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 1997; 23, 443-451.

Baumeister, R. F., Campbell, J. D., Krueger, J. I., & Vohs, K. D. Does High Self-Esteem Cause Better Performance, Interpersonal Success, Happiness, or Healthier Lifestyles? Psychological Science in the Public Interest. 2003; 4, 1-44.


Specialty: Psychiatry

System: Nervous

Objective: Assessment

Type: Patient Reported Scale

No. Of Items: 10

Year Of Study: 1965

Abbreviation: RSE

Article By: Denise Nedea

Published On: April 8, 2020

Last Checked: April 8, 2020

Next Review: April 8, 2025