Glasgow Outcome Scale GOS And GOS-E
Evaluates neurological function in patients with traumatic brain injury.
In the text below the tool there is more information about the two versions of the scale.
The Glasgow outcome scale assesses patients with traumatic brain injury in terms of neurological status and degree of disability.
This clinical decision making tool has 2 versions of the scale, the original and the extended version.
The original GOS was devised by Jennett and Bond in 1975 to provide a standardized method of evaluating cerebral trauma. There are five statuses that aim to award an objective assessment of recovery.
The extended version benefits from eight statuses, because of a separation between lower and upper function.
Both scales can be used in long term prediction of rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury.
3. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
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About GOS and GOS-E
There are two Glasgow outcome scales, an original version and an extended one. These are presented above one after another to offer clinicians a rapid but extensive stratification tool for the assessment of patients with traumatic brain injury.
The GOS was first described in 1975 in a study by Jennet and Bond. It consists of five statuses that make up an objective evaluaton for initial status and recovery. GOS has also been used successfully in predicting the long term rehabilitation after TBI.
The Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale or GOS-E was meant to address the shortfalls of the original version and consists of eight statuses and a structured interview to be applied with it.
GOS-E has shown more reliability and content validity in practice. The GOS-E is more sensitive than GOS in terms of changes in mild and moderate traumatic brain injuries.
Both of these scales provide a general assessment of mental function, trauma severity and outcome after head injury. In research of traumatic injury GOS are recommended to be administered at 3, 6 and 12 months.
For patients with TBI there are also rehabilitation models available, like the Disability Rating Scale that consists of interview questions that offer information about the patient status, rehabilitation and perceived disability.
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
TBI is a type of intracranial injury caused by external trauma to the head, usually in accidents, assaults or falls.
TBIs are classified by severity and vary from minor concussion to severe brain injury, dependent on the injury mechanism (closed or penetrating), location and patient variables.
Symptoms depend on the severity of the brain damage.
The following table explains the correlation with the Glasgow coma scale scores and the main characteristics:
|TBI injury severity||Symptoms||Glasgow Coma Scale||Post Traumatic Amnesia Loss of consciousness|
|Mild||Headaches, confusion, dizziness, fatigue, blurred vision, behavioural changes||13 - 15||<1 day amnesia
0 – 30 min LOC
|Moderate||All symptoms from mild but worse, seizures, restlessness, slurred speech||9 – 12||<7 day amnesia
>30 minutes - 24h LOC
|Severe||More severe symptoms than moderate TBI, inability to be awoken from sleep, numbness in extremities, convulsions, loss of coordination, mental degradation, coma||3 - 8||>7 day amnesia
Jennett B, Bond M. Assessment of outcome after severe brain damage. Lancet. 1975; 1(7905):480-4.
1. Wilson JTL, Pettigrew LEL, Teasdale GM. Structured interviews for the Glasgow Outcome Scale and the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale: Guidelines for their use. Journal of Neurotrauma. 1998; 15:573-585.
2. Weir J et al. Does the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale Add Value to the Conventional Glasgow Outcome Scale? J Neurotrauma. 2012; 29(1): 53–58.
3. Levin HS, Boake C, Song J, Mccauley S, Contant C, Diaz-Marchan P, Brundage S, Goodman H, Kotrla KJ. Validity and sensitivity to change of the extended Glasgow Outcome Scale in mild to moderate traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2001; 18(6):575-84.
No. Of Items: 5 and 8
Year Of Study: 1975
Abbreviation: GOS and GOS-E
Published On: June 21, 2017 · 07:10 AM
Last Checked: June 21, 2017
Next Review: June 21, 2023