Albumin Globulin Ratio Calculator

Compares the amount of albumin proteins found in blood with that of other proteins, the globulins.

Refer to the text below the tool for more information about the parameters involved and their interpretation.


The A/G ratio determines how the amount of albumin in blood compares with the other protein in blood, globulins. This ratio is a measure of liver and kidney function and can evidence any imbalances and offer clues about their potential causes, whether the ratio is high or low.


A/G Ratio = Albumin in g/dL / (Total Protein in g/dL – Albumin in g/dL)

Interpretation: A/G Ratios of less than 1 are clinically significant, indicating that globulin proteins exceed the albumin protein.


Albumin
Total Protein
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Albumin Globulin Ratio Explained

The A/G ratio determines how the amount of albumin in blood compares with the other protein in blood, globulins. This ratio is a measure of liver and kidney function and can evidence any imbalances and offer clues about their potential causes, whether the ratio is high or low.

A/G Ratio = Albumin in g/dL / (Total Protein in g/dL – Albumin in g/dL)

The A/G ratio is being used as an index of disease state but it is not a specific marker as it cannot indicate which protein levels are altered. The ratio goes out of the normal range if one component increases or decreases relative to the other.

A/G ratios of less than 1 are clinically significant, indicating that globulin proteins exceed the albumin protein. Some other sources indicate that the normal range for A/G ratio as being between 0.5 and 1.2.

Causes of low, respectively abnormally high A/G ratios

Low A/G ratio High A/G ratio
Overproduction of globulins (e.g. myeloma or autoimmune diseases) Underproduction of immunoglobulins (e.g. genetic deficiencies, some leukemias).
Underproduction of albumin (e.g. cirrhosis) High levels of albumin (e.g. conditions with decrease of plasma water).
Selective loss of albumin from circulation (e.g. nephrotic syndrome) -
 

About Changes in Serum Proteins

The major serum proteins are albumin and globulin (primarily alpha 1 and alpha 2 globulin, beta globulin and gamma globulin). Albumin accounts for more than 50% of the total serum proteins and also maintains oncotic pressure and transports hormones, vitamins and drugs throughout the body.

Globulins make up the remaining percentage of proteins and are either produced by liver or by the immune system, to help fight infection and also transport nutrients.

Parameter Normal Low Normal High
Albumin 39 g/L 51 g/L
Globulin 23 g/L 35 g/L

Total serum protein test may be ordered if:

  • There are symptoms of liver disease, kidney disease;
  • There are symptoms of a bone marrow disorder;
  • There is swelling caused by extra fluid (edema);
  • Unexplained weight loss;
  • Unexplained fatigue.

Causes of high, respectively low total protein levels

Total protein levels decrease Total protein levels increase
Kidney disease (nephrotic syndrome) Inflammatory disorders (multiple myeloma)
Malnutrition Dehydration
Severe liver disease Amyloidosis
Congestive heart failure Hepatitis B or C
 

References

Busher JT. Serum Albumin and Globulin. In: Walker HK, Hall WD, Hurst JW, editors. Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3rd edition. Boston: Butterworths; 1990. Chapter 101.

Lv GY, An L, Sun XD, Hu YL, Sun DW. Pretreatment albumin to globulin ratio can serve as a prognostic marker in human cancers: a meta-analysis. Clin Chim Acta. 2018; 476:81-91.

Duran AO, Inanc M, Karaca H, et al. Albumin-globulin ratio for prediction of long-term mortality in lung adenocarcinoma patients. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(15):6449-6453.


Specialty: Hematology

Article By: Denise Nedea

Published On: June 17, 2020

Last Checked: June 17, 2020

Next Review: June 17, 2025